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Prog Biophys Mol Biol. 2014 Jan;114(1):2-7. doi: 10.1016/j.pbiomolbio.2013.11.003. Epub 2013 Nov 13.

Functions and roles of proteins: diabetes as a paradigm.

Author information

1
Dept of Electrical and Computer Engineering, New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT), Newark, NJ 07102, USA. Electronic address: mhs43@njit.edu.
2
Dept of Electrical and Computer Engineering, New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT), Newark, NJ 07102, USA. Electronic address: zhou@njit.edu.
3
Dept of Medicine-Hematology/Oncology, Graduate School of Biomedical Science, Rutgers-New Jersey Medical School, NJ 07103, USA. Electronic address: rameshwa@njms.rutgers.edu.
4
Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Biology, NIDDK, National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD 20892-0851, USA. Electronic address: jah@helix.nih.gov.

Abstract

Molecular and cellular biology has moved towards complete and accurate knowledge of how molecules behave in space and time. Protein is considered as the primary group of molecules responsible for mediating most physiological processes. Changes in the levels of proteins may lead to the altered function and are responsible for many diseases. This review provides a partial molecular explanation of biological force-ratio generation that may act to split protein into branches, and shows molecular functional divergence. Developing a non-reductionist theory of the cellular function in medicine is clearly not sufficient. Finding effective parameters of the models by characterizing molecular interactions becomes necessary. Protein interactivity and stability provides a basis for an integrated understanding of pathologies such diabetes. One example of how a mechanistic analysis of such physiological processes can be of value is the time-delay between mRNA and translation that can act as a fork allowing a slowdown in gene expression.

KEYWORDS:

Force-ratio; Protein; Stem cells; β-Cells

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