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Semin Neurol. 2013 Sep;33(4):386-416. doi: 10.1055/s-0033-1359312. Epub 2013 Nov 14.

Neuroimaging biomarkers of neurodegenerative diseases and dementia.

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Center for Neuroimaging, Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, and Indiana Alzheimer Disease Center Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana.


Neurodegenerative disorders leading to dementia are common diseases that affect many older and some young adults. Neuroimaging methods are important tools for assessing and monitoring pathological brain changes associated with progressive neurodegenerative conditions. In this review, the authors describe key findings from neuroimaging studies (magnetic resonance imaging and radionucleotide imaging) in neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and prodromal stages, familial and atypical AD syndromes, frontotemporal dementia, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with and without dementia, Parkinson's disease with and without dementia, dementia with Lewy bodies, Huntington's disease, multiple sclerosis, HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder, and prion protein associated diseases (i.e., Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease). The authors focus on neuroimaging findings of in vivo pathology in these disorders, as well as the potential for neuroimaging to provide useful information for differential diagnosis of neurodegenerative disorders.

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