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J Clin Imaging Sci. 2013 Sep 30;3:41. doi: 10.4103/2156-7514.119139. eCollection 2013.

Multispectral Photoacoustic Imaging of Prostate Cancer: Preliminary Ex-vivo Results.

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Department of Radiology, Urology, and BME, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14642, USA.



The objective of this study is to validate if ex-vivo multispectral photoacoustic (PA) imaging can differentiate between malignant prostate tissue, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and normal human prostate tissue.


Institutional Review Board's approval was obtained for this study. A total of 30 patients undergoing prostatectomy for biopsy-confirmed prostate cancer were included in this study with informed consent. Multispectral PA imaging was performed on surgically excised prostate tissue and chromophore images that represent optical absorption of deoxyhemoglobin (dHb), oxyhemoglobin (HbO2), lipid, and water were reconstructed. After the imaging procedure is completed, malignant prostate, BPH and normal prostate regions were marked by the genitourinary pathologist on histopathology slides and digital images of marked histopathology slides were obtained. The histopathology images were co-registered with chromophore images. Region of interest (ROI) corresponding to malignant prostate, BPH and normal prostate were defined on the chromophore images. Pixel values within each ROI were then averaged to determine mean intensities of dHb, HbO2, lipid, and water.


Our preliminary results show that there is statistically significant difference in mean intensity of dHb (P < 0.0001) and lipid (P = 0.0251) between malignant prostate and normal prostate tissue. There was difference in mean intensity of dHb (P < 0.0001) between malignant prostate and BPH. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of our imaging system were found to be 81.3%, 96.2%, 92.9% and 89.3% respectively.


Our preliminary results of ex-vivo human prostate study suggest that multispectral PA imaging can differentiate between malignant prostate, BPH and normal prostate tissue.


Multispectral; photoacoustic; prostate

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