Send to

Choose Destination
J Neurosci. 2013 Nov 13;33(46):18343-51. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2130-13.2013.

Fast hemodynamic responses in the visual cortex of the awake mouse.

Author information

Institute of Ophthalmology, University College London, London EC1V 9EL, United Kingdom.


Hemodynamic responses in mice and other species are typically measured under anesthesia. However, anesthesia could influence their relationship to neural activity. To investigate this relationship, we used optical imaging in mouse primary visual cortex (V1). Hemodynamic responses yielded clear maps of retinotopy in both anesthetized and awake mice. However, during wakefulness, responses were four times larger and twice as fast. These differences held whether we induced anesthesia with urethane or isoflurane and whether awake mice were stationary or running on a treadmill. With electrode recordings, we established that the effects of wakefulness reflect changes in neurovascular coupling, not in neural activity. By activating V1 directly via optogenetics, we replicated the effects of wakefulness in terms of timing but not of amplitude. We conclude that neurovascular coupling depends critically on anesthesia and wakefulness: during wakefulness, neural activity is followed by much stronger and quicker hemodynamic responses.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for HighWire Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center