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Thyroid. 2014 Apr;24(4):639-48. doi: 10.1089/thy.2013.0164. Epub 2014 Jan 20.

Analysis of the thyroid phenotype in 42 patients with Pendred syndrome and nonsyndromic enlargement of the vestibular aqueduct.

Author information

1
1 Department of Endocrinology, Regional University Hospital Center (CHRU) of Lille, Lille, France .

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Pendred syndrome (PS), a recessive disorder caused by mutations in the SLC26A4 (PDS) gene, is associated with deafness and goiter. SLC26A4 mutations have also been identified in patients exhibiting isolated sensorineural hearing loss without apparent thyroid abnormality (nonsyndromic enlargement of the vestibular aqueduct; nonsyndromic EVA). Our aim was to describe systematically the thyroidal phenotypes and the SLC26A4 genotypes of patients presenting with PS or nonsyndromic EVA.

METHODS:

Nineteen patients with PS and 23 patients with nonsyndromic EVA, aged 5-53 years, were included. They underwent thyroid evaluation (physical examination, biological thyroid function tests, measurement of thyroglobulin level, thyroid ultrasonography, and thyroid (123)I scintigraphy with perchlorate discharge test), otological evaluation, and SLC26A4 mutation screening.

RESULTS:

In 19 patients with PS, goiter was identified in 15 (79%) and hypothyroidism in 15 (79%); hypothyroidism was subclinical in four patients and congenital in six patients. The perchlorate discharge test (PDT) was positive in 10/16 (63%). Morphological evaluation of the inner ear using MRI and/or CT showed bilateral EVA in 15/15 PS patients. Mutation screening revealed two SLC26A4 mutant alleles in all 19 PS patients that were homozygous in two families and compound heterozygous in 12 families. In the 23 patients with nonsyndromic EVA, systematic thyroid evaluation found no abnormalities except for slightly increased thyroglobulin levels in two patients. SLC26A4 mutations were identified in 9/23 (39%). Mutations were biallelic in two (compound heterozygous) and monoallelic in seven patients.

CONCLUSION:

The thyroid phenotype is widely variable in PS. SLC26A4 mutation screening is needed in patients exhibiting PS or nonsyndromic EVA. PS is associated with biallelic SLC26A4 mutations and nonsyndromic EVA with no, monoallelic, or biallelic SLC26A4 mutations. Systematic thyroid evaluation is recommended in patients with nonsyndromic EVA associated with one or two SLC26A4 mutations. We propose using a combination of three parameters to define and diagnose PS: (i) sensorineural deafness with bilateral EVA; (ii) thyroid abnormality comprising goiter and/or hypothyroidism and/or a positive PDT; (iii) biallelic SLC26A4 mutations.

PMID:
24224479
DOI:
10.1089/thy.2013.0164
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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