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Anesth Pain Med. 2013 Summer;3(1):208-13. doi: 10.5812/aapm.9653. Epub 2013 Jul 1.

Conscious Sedation and Analgesia in Colonoscopy: Ketamine/Propofol Combination has Superior Patient Satisfaction Versus Fentanyl/Propofol.

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Department of Anesthesiology, Sina Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.



Colonoscopy is performed without preparing sedation in many countries. However, according to the current literature patients are more satisfied when appropriate sedation is prepared for them.


We hypothesize that propofol-ketamine may prepare more patient satisfaction compared to propofol-fentanyl combination.


Sixty adult patients older than 18 with ASA physical status of I, II or III were enrolled in the present study after providing the informed consent. They were prospectively randomized into two equal groups: 1- Group PF: was scheduled to receive IV bolus dose of fentanyl 1µg/kg and propofol 0.5mg/kg. 2- Group PK: was scheduled to receive IV bolus dose of ketamine 0.5mg/kg and propofol 0.5mg/kg. As a primary goal, patient's satisfaction was assessed by the use a Likert five-item scoring system in the recovery. Comparisons of hemodynamic parameters (mean heart rate, mean systolic blood pressure, mean diastolic blood pressure), mean Spo2 values during the procedure and side effects such as nausea, vomiting, and psychological reactions during the recovery period were our secondary goals. Level of sedation during the colonoscopy was assessed with the Observer's Assessment of Alertness/Sedation score (OAA/S).


Mean satisfaction scores in the group PK were significantly higher than the group PF (P = 0.005) while the level of sedation during the procedure was similar (P = 0.17). Hemodynamic parameters and SpO2 values were not significantly different (P > 0.05). Incidence of nausea and vomiting was the same in both groups.


IV bolus injection of propofol-ketamine can lead to more patients' satisfaction than the other protocols during colonoscopy.


Colonoscopy; Fentanyl; Ketamine; Patient Satisfaction; Propofol

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