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Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2016;56(4):541-90. doi: 10.1080/10408398.2013.792772.

Impact of Diet Composition on Blood Glucose Regulation.

Author information

1
a Rowett Institute of Nutrition and Health, University of Aberdeen , Aberdeen , UK.
2
b ILSI Europe a.i.s.b.l. , Brussels , Belguim.
3
c Centre for Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Lund , Lund , Sweden.
4
d Louvain Drug Research Institute, Université Catholique de Louvain , Brussels , Belgium.
5
e Department of Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases, Beckman Research Institute of City of Hope , Duarte , California , USA.
6
f Life and Health Sciences, Aston University , Birmingham , UK.
7
g Coca-Cola Europe, Scientific and Regulatory Affairs Department , Brussels , Belgium.
8
h Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Eastern Finland , Kuopio , Finland.
9
i Danisco A/S Health and Nutrition , Kantvik , Finland.
10
j Danone Research, Centre for Specialised Nutrition , Wageningen , The Netherlands.
11
k Department of Movement Sciences, Maastricht University , Maastricht , The Netherlands.
12
l Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University Federico II , Naples , Italy.
13
m Kraft Foods, R&D Centre, Nutrition Department , Saclay , France.
14
n University Hospitals Coventry and Warwickshire and Division of Metabolic and Vascular Health, University of Warwick , Coventry , UK.

Abstract

Nutritional management of blood glucose levels is a strategic target in the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). To implement such an approach, it is essential to understand the effect of food on glycemic regulation and on the underlying metabolic derangements. This comprehensive review summarizes the results from human dietary interventions exploring the impact of dietary components on blood glucose levels. Included are the major macronutrients; carbohydrate, protein and fat, micronutrient vitamins and minerals, nonnutrient phytochemicals and additional foods including low-calorie sweeteners, vinegar, and alcohol. Based on the evidence presented in this review, it is clear that dietary components have significant and clinically relevant effects on blood glucose modulation. An integrated approach that includes reducing excess body weight, increased physical activity along with a dietary regime to regulate blood glucose levels will not only be advantages in T2DM management, but will benefit the health of the population and limit the increasing worldwide incidence of T2DM.

KEYWORDS:

Postprandial glycemia; diabetes; human dietary intervention; insulin resistance; insulin sensitivity.

PMID:
24219323
DOI:
10.1080/10408398.2013.792772
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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