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Braz J Infect Dis. 2014 Mar-Apr;18(2):129-36. doi: 10.1016/j.bjid.2013.06.008. Epub 2013 Nov 8.

Isolation, pathogenicity and disinfection of Staphylococcus aureus carried by insects in two public hospitals of Vitória da Conquista, Bahia, Brazil.

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Instituto Multidisciplinar em Saúde, Núcleo de Tecnologia em Saúde, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, BA, Brazil.
Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Departamento de Microbiologia, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.
Instituto Multidisciplinar em Saúde, Núcleo de Tecnologia em Saúde, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, BA, Brazil. Electronic address:


Currently, hospital infection is a serious public health problem, and several factors may influence the occurrence of these infections, including the presence of insects, which are carriers of multidrug-resistant bacterial species. The aim of this study was to isolate staphylococci carried by insects in two public hospitals of Vitoria da Conquista, Bahia and to identify the resistance profile, pathogenicity and efficacy of disinfection of the premises. A total of 91 insects were collected in 21 strategic points of these hospitals, and 32 isolated strains of Staphylococcus aureus were isolated. Based on antibiogram and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration results, 95% of these strains were susceptible to oxacillin. These strains were also evaluated for the presence of resistance genes encoding resistance to oxacillin/methicillin by polymerase chain reaction, but the sample was negative for this gene. Pathogenicity tests were performed in vitro biofilm formation induced by glucose, where it was found that eight (27.58%) strains were classified as biofilm producers and 21 (72.4%) as stronger producers. In addition, we performed PCR for their virulence genes: Sea (enterotoxin A), SEB (B), Sec (C), PVL (Panton-Valentine Leukocidin), ClfA (clumping factor A) and Spa (protein A). Of these, Sea, Spa PVL were positive in 7 (21.8%), 2 (6.3%) and 1 (3.1%) samples, respectively. The analysis of cytokine induction in the inflammatory response of J774 macrophages by isolates from the two hospitals did not show statistical difference at the levels of IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1 and IL-10 production. In addition, we verified the antimicrobial activity of disinfecting agents on these strains, quaternary ammonium, 0.5% sodium hypochlorite, 1% sodium hypochlorite, 2% sodium hypochlorite, 2% glutaraldehyde, Lysoform(®), 70% alcohol solution of chlorhexidine digluconate, 2% peracetic acid, and 100% vinegar. Resistance was seen in only for the following two disinfectants: 70% alcohol in 31 (96.8%) samples tested and vinegar in 30 (93.8%) samples. The study demonstrated the presence of resistant and pathogenic organisms conveyed by insects, thus suggesting improvement in efforts to control these vectors.


Disinfection; Insects; Resistance; Staphylococcus aureus; Virulence factors

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