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J Adolesc. 2013 Dec;36(6):1143-51. doi: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2013.09.003. Epub 2013 Oct 8.

Exposure to life adversity in high school and later work participation: a longitudinal population-based study.

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Norwegian Centre for Violence and Traumatic Stress Studies, Kirkeveien 166, N-0407 Oslo, Norway. Electronic address:


This paper investigates whether exposure to violence, sexual abuse, or bullying is associated with later work participation and whether high school completion has a potential mediating role. Self-reported junior high school questionnaire data were linked for eight consecutive years to prospective registry data for the demographics, educational progress, employment activity, and social benefits of 11,874 individuals. Ordinal regression analysis showed that violence and/or bullying at 15 years of age predicted negative work participation outcomes eight years later, independent of high school completion and other relevant factors. Although increasing educational level may have some preventive effect, these results indicate that prevention efforts should be initiated at an early age and should target adverse life experiences.


Bullying; Longitudinal; Sexual abuse; Violence; Work participation

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