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J Ethnopharmacol. 2014;151(1):361-4. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2013.10.059. Epub 2013 Nov 7.

The effect of Salvia divinorum and Mitragyna speciosa extracts, fraction and major constituents on place aversion and place preference in rats.

Author information

1
Department of Psychology, University of Mississippi, University, MS 38677, USA; Department of Pharmacology, University of Mississippi, University, MS 38677, USA; Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Science, University of Mississippi, University, MS 38677, USA. Electronic address: pysufka@olemiss.edu.
2
Department of Psychology, University of Mississippi, University, MS 38677, USA.
3
Department of Pharmacognosy, University of Mississippi, University, MS 38677, USA.
4
Department of Pharmacognosy, University of Mississippi, University, MS 38677, USA; Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Science, University of Mississippi, University, MS 38677, USA.
5
National Center for Natural Product Research, University of Mississippi, University, MS 38677, USA.
6
Department of Pharmacognosy, University of Mississippi, University, MS 38677, USA; Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Science, University of Mississippi, University, MS 38677, USA; National Center for Natural Product Research, University of Mississippi, University, MS 38677, USA.

Abstract

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:

Consumer use of botanicals has increased despite, in many instances, the paucity of research demonstrating efficacy or identifying liabilities. This research employed the place preference/aversion paradigm to characterize the psychoactive properties of Salvia divinorum extract (10, 30, 100mg/kg), salvinorin A (0.1, 0.3, 1.0mg/kg), Mitragyna speciosa MeOH extract (50, 100, 300 mg/kg), Mitragyna speciosa alkaloid-enriched fraction (12.5, 25, 75 mg/kg) and mitragynine (5, 10, 30 mg/kg) in rats.

MATERIAL AND METHODS:

Following apparatus habituation and baseline preference scores, male Sprague-Dawley rats were given eight counter-balanced drug versus vehicle conditioning trials followed by a preference test conducted under drug-free states. S(+)-amphetamine (1mg/kg) served as the positive control (in Exp. 2) and haloperidol (0.8, 1.0mg/kg) served as the negative control in both studies.

RESULTS:

Rats displayed place aversion to both Salvia divinorum and salvinorin A that exceeded that of haloperidol. Rats showed place preference to mitragynine that was similar to that of S(+)-amphetamine. This CPP effect was much less pronounced with the Mitragyna speciosa extract and its fraction.

CONCLUSIONS:

These findings suggest that both botanicals possess liabilities, albeit somewhat different, that warrant caution in their use.

KEYWORDS:

Mitragyna speciosa; Mitragynine; Place preference/aversion; Salvia divinorum; Salvinorin A

PMID:
24212071
DOI:
10.1016/j.jep.2013.10.059
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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