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Rev Port Cardiol. 2013 Oct;32(10):777-84. doi: 10.1016/j.repc.2012.11.015. Epub 2013 Oct 25.

Left-sided infective endocarditis: analysis of in-hospital and medium-term outcome and predictors of mortality.

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Internal Medicine and Cardiology Departments, Centro Hospitalar do Porto, Porto, Portugal; Internal Medicine Department, Centro Hospitalar de São João, Porto, Portugal. Electronic address:



Despite diagnostic and therapeutic advances, infective endocarditis (IE) remains a challenging and potentially lethal disease. The prognosis of IE remains poor; in the last 30 years, its incidence and mortality have only been marginally reduced. Early identification of high-risk patients can change the course of the disease and improve outcomes.


To describe and investigate predictors of mortality during hospital stay and in the six months after discharge in a cohort of left-sided IE patients in two tertiary centers. All patients diagnosed with IE (ICD9 code 133) were registered in a uniform database.


One hundred and forty-seven consecutive case patients with left-sided IE were included in this study. Thirty-five patients (23.8%) died during hospital stay. The variables significantly associated with increased mortality in univariate analysis were Charlson index ≥ 5, use of immunosuppressants, sepsis (severe sepsis and/or septic shock), cardiogenic shock and inappropriate use of antibiotic therapy. Conversely, surgical therapy and hospital length of stay ≥ 30 days were significantly associated with lower mortality. In multivariate analysis the most important predictors of in-hospital mortality were sepsis (severe and/or shock), use of immunosuppressants and inappropriate use of antibiotic therapy. There was a significant relation between the use of immunosuppressants and the occurrence of sepsis. The presence of significant valve disease after IE significantly increased the risk of heart failure.


Our results may help to identify IE patients at increased risk for in-hospital mortality and medium-term disability. These findings can help to identify candidates for earlier and more aggressive management.


Analysis; Análise; Endocardite infecciosa; Infective endocarditis; Mortalidade; Mortality; Outcome; Prognóstico

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