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Food Chem. 2014 Mar 15;147:55-9. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.09.130. Epub 2013 Oct 1.

Cytotoxic effect against 3T3 fibroblasts cells of saffron floral bio-residues extracts.

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Cátedra de Química Agrícola, ETSI Agrónomos, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Campus Universitario, 02071 Albacete, Spain; Department of Food Science, Regional Campus of International Excellence "Campus Mare Nostrum", Murcia University, CIBERobn, ISCIII, 30100 Murcia, Spain.

Erratum in

  • Food Chem. 2014 May 15;151:21.


For every kilogram of saffron spice produced, about 63 kg of floral bio-residues (FB) (tepals, stamens and styles) are thrown away. Extracts of these bio-residues in water (W1), water:HCl (100:1, v/v) (W2), ethanol (E3), ethanol:HCl (100:1, v/v) (E4), dichloromethane (D5) and hexane (H6) were prepared. Their composition in flavonols and anthocyanins, and their effect on cell viability were determined. W1 was the richest in kaempferol 3-sophoroside (30.34 mg/g dry FB) and delphinidin 3,5-diglucoside (15.98 mg/g dry FB). The highest tested concentration (900 μg/ml) of W1, W2, E4, D5 and H6 did not significantly decrease the cell viability. Only E3 at that concentration caused a significant decrease of 38% in the cell viability. Therefore, all extracts studied are not cytotoxic at concentrations lower than 900 μg/ml, and W1 is proposed as the optimal for food applications due to its greater contribution of phenolic compounds.


3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide; Cell viability; Crocus sativus L.; D3,5-diG; D3-G; Delphinidin 3,5-diglucoside; Flower waste; HCl; I3,4′-diG; K; K3-G; K3-R; K3-S; K3-S-7G; Kaempferol 3-sophoroside; M3,5-diG; MTT; P3,5-diG; PBS; Phenolic composition; Q3-S; TAC; TFA; TPC; delphinidin 3,5-diglucoside; delphinidin 3-glucoside; hydrochloric acid; isorhamnetin 3,4′-diglucoside; kaempferol; kaempferol 3-glucoside; kaempferol 3-rutinoside; kaempferol 3-sophoroside; kaempferol 3-sophoroside-7-glucoside; malvidin 3,5-diglucoside; petunidin 3,5-diglucoside; phosphate buffered saline; quercetin 3-sophoroside; total anthocyanin content; total phenolic content; trifluoroacetic acid

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