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Adv Chronic Kidney Dis. 2013 Nov;20(6):466-78. doi: 10.1053/j.ackd.2013.08.004.

Perfluorocarbon nanoparticles for physiological and molecular imaging and therapy.

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Department of Medicine, Washington University, St. Louis, MO.


Herein, we review the use of non-nephrotoxic perfluorocarbon nanoparticles (PFC NPs) for noninvasive detection and therapy of kidney diseases, and we provide a synopsis of other related literature pertinent to their anticipated clinical application. Recent reports indicate that PFC NPs allow for quantitative mapping of kidney perfusion and oxygenation after ischemia-reperfusion injury with the use of a novel multinuclear (1)H/(19)F magnetic resonance imaging approach. Furthermore, when conjugated with targeting ligands, the functionalized PFC NPs offer unique and quantitative capabilities for imaging inflammation in the kidney of atherosclerotic ApoE-null mice. In addition, PFC NPs can facilitate drug delivery for treatment of inflammation, thrombosis, and angiogenesis in selected conditions that are comorbidities for kidney failure. The excellent safety profile of PFC NPs with respect to kidney injury positions these nanomedicine approaches as promising diagnostic and therapeutic candidates for treating and following acute and chronic kidney diseases.


Molecular imaging; Nanoparticles; Oxygenation; Perfluorocarbon; Perfusion

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