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Expert Rev Proteomics. 2013 Dec;10(6):537-49. doi: 10.1586/14789450.2013.855611.

Redox proteomics: from residue modifications to putative biomarker identification by gel- and LC-MS-based approaches.

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Biotechnology Division, Biomedical Research Foundation, Academy of Athens, Soranou Efessiou 4,11527, Athens, Greece.


Quantitative determination of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species in body fluids, tissues or cells has always been problematic due to their high chemical reactivity and the resulting short half-life. This high reactivity may involve reversible and/or irreversible protein modifications, in particular the covalent oxidative modification of specific amino acid residues. Thus, the occurrence of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species can be monitored indirectly from the identification of specific protein-chemical footprints. In combination with classical gel-based proteomics or liquid chromatography labeling or label-free techniques, mass spectrometry has emerged as a powerful tool to identify these protein modifications in biological samples. In this review, we present the main methodological approaches for gel-based proteomics and quantitative mass spectrometry applied to oxidative protein modifications, mainly Cys. Representative examples from their application in identifying respective biomarkers in diseases related to oxidative stress are also presented.

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