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Trop Med Int Health. 2014 Feb;19(2):169-76. doi: 10.1111/tmi.12221. Epub 2013 Nov 11.

Emergence of methicillin resistance and Panton-Valentine leukocidin positivity in hospital- and community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus infections in Beira, Mozambique.

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Universidade Católica de Moçambique, Beira, Mozambique; Department of Medical Microbiology and Infection Control, Jeroen Bosch Hospital, 's-Hertogenbosch, The Netherlands.



The objective of this study was to investigate the antibiotic resistance patterns, including methicillin resistance, inducible macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLSB ) resistance and Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) toxin gene carriage among hospital-acquired Staphylococcus aureus (HA-SA) and community-acquired S. aureus (CA-SA), in Beira, Mozambique.


In 2010-2011, two prospective surveillance studies were conducted on post-operative and burn wound infections at the Central Hospital of Beira and on skin and soft tissue abscesses at the São Lucas Health Centre. We cultured pus samples, identified suspected S. aureus isolates and performed antimicrobial susceptibility testing, including detection of MLSB resistance. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to detect mecA, Martineau and PVL genes.


The prevalence of hospital-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus (HA-MRSA) infection among 53 inpatients was 15.1%; the prevalence of community-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) infection among 100 outpatients was 1.0%. Inducible MLSB resistance was present in 41.7% and 10.7% of HA-SA and CA-SA isolates, respectively. PVL toxin gene was detected in 81.1% of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) compared with 11.1% of methicillin-resistant S. aureus.


Our study shows, for the first time in Mozambique, the emergence of HA-MRSA. The prevalence of CA-MRSA was low, whereas the rate of PVL toxin gene carriage in MSSA was high. The high rate of inducible MLSB resistance indicates the importance of performing routine D-tests. Overall, our results show the need of strengthening laboratory facilities to provide microbiological data for both directed therapy and surveillance.


Mozambique; Panton-Valentine leukocidin; Staphylococcus aureus; antimicrobial resistance pattern; inducible clindamycin resistance; methicillin resistance

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