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Biomed Res Int. 2013;2013:759760. doi: 10.1155/2013/759760. Epub 2013 Sep 25.

The multifaceted aspects of interstitial lung disease in rheumatoid arthritis.

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1
Division of Rheumatology, University and IRCCS Foundation Policlinico S. Matteo, Viale Golgi 3, 27100 Pavia, Italy.

Abstract

Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a relevant extra-articular manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) that may occur either in early stages or as a complication of long-standing disease. RA related ILD (RA-ILD) significantly influences the quoad vitam prognosis of these patients. Several histopathological patterns of RA-ILD have been described: usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) is the most frequent one, followed by nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP); other patterns are less commonly observed. Several factors have been associated with an increased risk of developing RA-ILD. The genetic background plays a fundamental but not sufficient role; smoking is an independent predictor of ILD, and a correlation with the presence of rheumatoid factor and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies has also been reported. Moreover, both exnovo occurrence and progression of ILD have been related to drug therapies that are commonly prescribed in RA, such as methotrexate, leflunomide, anti-TNF alpha agents, and rituximab. A greater understanding of the disease process is necessary in order to improve the therapeutic approach to ILD and RA itself and to reduce the burden of this severe extra-articular manifestation.

PMID:
24205507
PMCID:
PMC3800606
DOI:
10.1155/2013/759760
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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