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Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2013 Nov 5;3:73. doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2013.00073. eCollection 2013.

Mechanisms of copper homeostasis in bacteria.

Author information

1
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Worcester Polytechnic Institute Worcester, MA, USA.

Abstract

Copper is an important micronutrient required as a redox co-factor in the catalytic centers of enzymes. However, free copper is a potential hazard because of its high chemical reactivity. Consequently, organisms exert a tight control on Cu(+) transport (entry-exit) and traffic through different compartments, ensuring the homeostasis required for cuproprotein synthesis and prevention of toxic effects. Recent studies based on biochemical, bioinformatics, and metalloproteomics approaches, reveal a highly regulated system of transcriptional regulators, soluble chaperones, membrane transporters, and target cuproproteins distributed in the various bacterial compartments. As a result, new questions have emerged regarding the diversity and apparent redundancies of these components, their irregular presence in different organisms, functional interactions, and resulting system architectures.

KEYWORDS:

Cu+-ATPases; copper; homeostasis; metallochaperones; metalloenzymes; transmembrane transport

PMID:
24205499
PMCID:
PMC3817396
DOI:
10.3389/fcimb.2013.00073
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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