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PLoS One. 2013 Oct 18;8(10):e78193. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0078193. eCollection 2013.

Development of a biosafety enhanced and immunogenic Salmonella enteritidis ghost using an antibiotic resistance gene free plasmid carrying a bacteriophage lysis system.

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College of Veterinary Medicine, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Republic of Korea.


In the development of genetically inactivated bacterial vaccines, plasmid retention often requires the antibiotic resistance gene markers, the presence of which can cause the potential biosafety hazards such as the horizontal spread of resistance genes. The new lysis plasmid was constructed by utilizing the approach of balanced-lethal systems based on auxotrophic gene Aspartate semialdehyde dehydrogenase (asd). The PhiX174 lysis gene E and λPR37-cI857 temperature-sensitive regulatory system was cloned in the asd gene positive plasmid and this novel approach allowed the production of antibiotic resistance marker free Salmonella Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) ghost. The immunogenic potential of the biosafety enhanced antibiotic resistance gene free S. Enteritidis ghost was evaluated in chickens by employing the prime-boost vaccination strategy using a combination of oral and intramuscular routes. A total of 75 two-week-old chickens were equally divided into five groups: group A (non-immunized control), group B (intramuscularly primed and boosted), group C (primed intramuscularly and boosted orally), group D (primed and boosted orally), and group E (primed orally and boosted intramuscularly). Chickens from all immunized groups demonstrated significant increases in plasma IgG, intestinal secretory IgA levels, and antigen-specific lymphocyte proliferative response. After a virulent S. Enteritidis challenge, all immunized groups showed fewer gross lesions and decreased bacterial recovery from organs in comparison with the non-immunized control group. Among the immunized chickens, groups B and D chickens showed optimized protection, indicating that the prime-booster immunization with the ghost via intramuscular or oral route is efficient. Taken together, our results demonstrate that an antibiotic resistance gene free lysis plasmid was successfully constructed and utilized for production of safety enhanced S. Enteritidis ghost, which can be used as a safe and effective vaccine against virulent S. Enteritidis infections.

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