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Nat Protoc. 2013 Dec;8(12):2413-2428. doi: 10.1038/nprot.2013.158. Epub 2013 Nov 7.

Fabrication and application of flexible, multimodal light-emitting devices for wireless optogenetics.

McCall JG#1,2,3,4, Kim TI#5,6, Shin G#7, Huang X7, Jung YH7, Al-Hasani R1,2,3, Omenetto FG8,9, Bruchas MR#1,2,3,4, Rogers JA#7,10,11,12.

Author information

1
Department of Anesthesiology, Division of Basic Research, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA.
2
Washington University Pain Center, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA.
3
Anatomy and Neurobiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA.
4
Division of Biology and Biomedical Sciences, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA.
5
School of Chemical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University (SKKU), Suwon 440-746, Korea.
6
IBS Center for Neuroscience Imaging Research, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Daejeon 305-701, Republic of Korea.
7
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA.
8
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02115, USA.
9
Department of Physics, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02115, USA.
10
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61802, USA.
11
Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61802, USA.
12
Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61802, USA.
#
Contributed equally

Abstract

The rise of optogenetics provides unique opportunities to advance materials and biomedical engineering, as well as fundamental understanding in neuroscience. This protocol describes the fabrication of optoelectronic devices for studying intact neural systems. Unlike optogenetic approaches that rely on rigid fiber optics tethered to external light sources, these novel devices carry wirelessly powered microscale, inorganic light-emitting diodes (μ-ILEDs) and multimodal sensors inside the brain. We describe the technical procedures for construction of these devices, their corresponding radiofrequency power scavengers and their implementation in vivo for experimental application. In total, the timeline of the procedure, including device fabrication, implantation and preparation to begin in vivo experimentation, can be completed in ~3-8 weeks. Implementation of these devices allows for chronic (tested for up to 6 months) wireless optogenetic manipulation of neural circuitry in animals navigating complex natural or home-cage environments, interacting socially, and experiencing other freely moving behaviors.

PMID:
24202555
PMCID:
PMC4005292
DOI:
10.1038/nprot.2013.158
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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