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Science. 2013 Nov 22;342(6161):948-53. doi: 10.1126/science.1236083. Epub 2013 Nov 7.

Organization of the mitotic chromosome.

Author information

1
Program in Systems Biology, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, University of Massachusetts Medical School (UMMS), 368 Plantation Street, Worcester, MA 01605-0103, USA.

Abstract

Mitotic chromosomes are among the most recognizable structures in the cell, yet for over a century their internal organization remains largely unsolved. We applied chromosome conformation capture methods, 5C and Hi-C, across the cell cycle and revealed two distinct three-dimensional folding states of the human genome. We show that the highly compartmentalized and cell type-specific organization described previously for nonsynchronous cells is restricted to interphase. In metaphase, we identified a homogenous folding state that is locus-independent, common to all chromosomes, and consistent among cell types, suggesting a general principle of metaphase chromosome organization. Using polymer simulations, we found that metaphase Hi-C data are inconsistent with classic hierarchical models and are instead best described by a linearly organized longitudinally compressed array of consecutive chromatin loops.

PMID:
24200812
PMCID:
PMC4040465
DOI:
10.1126/science.1236083
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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