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Open Access J Urol. 2011 Dec 30;4:1-8. doi: 10.2147/OAJU.S15063.

Role of biochemical markers in testicular cancer: diagnosis, staging, and surveillance.

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Department of Urology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.


Testis cancer is one of the few solid organ malignancies for which reliable serum tumor markers are available to help guide disease management. Human chorionic gonadotropin, alpha fetoprotein, and lactate dehydrogenase play crucial roles in diagnosis, staging, prognosis, monitoring treatment response, and surveillance of seminomatous and nonseminomatous germ cell tumors. Herein we discuss the clinical applications of germ cell tumor markers, the limitations of these markers in the management of this disease, and additional serum molecules that have been identified with potential roles as novel germ cell tumor markers.


AFP; bhCG; diagnosis; surveillance; testicular cancer; tumor markers

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