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Neurotherapeutics. 2014 Jan;11(1):47-59. doi: 10.1007/s13311-013-0235-0.

Surgical treatment of Parkinson's disease: patients, targets, devices, and approaches.

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Center for Movement Disorders and Neurorestoration, Department of Neurology, University of Florida, 3450 Hull Road, Gainesville, FL, 32607, USA,


Surgical treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD) has evolved from ablative procedures, within a variety of brain regions, to implantation of electrodes into specific targets of the basal ganglia. Electrode implantation surgery, referred to as deep brain stimulation (DBS), is preferred to ablative procedures by many experts owing to its reversibility, programmability, and the ability to be safely performed bilaterally. Several randomized clinical studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of DBS surgery for control of PD symptoms. Many brain targets, including the subthalamic nucleus and the globus pallidus internus, have emerged as potentially effective, with each target being closely associated with important pros and cons. Selection of appropriate PD candidates through a methodical interdisciplinary screening is considered a prerequisite for a successful surgical outcome. Despite recent growth in DBS knowledge, there is currently no consensus on the ideal surgical technique, the best surgical approach, and the most appropriate surgical target. DBS is now targeted towards treating specific PD-related symptoms in a given individual, and not simply addressing the disease with one pre-defined approach. In this review we will discuss the historical aspects of surgical treatments, the selection of an appropriate DBS candidate, the current surgical techniques, and recently introduced DBS-related technologies. We will address important pre- and postoperative issues related to DBS. We will also discuss the lessons learned from the randomized clinical studies for DBS and the shifting paradigm to tailor to a more patient-centered and symptom-specific approach.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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