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PLoS One. 2013 Oct 23;8(10):e77175. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0077175. eCollection 2013.

Population genomic analysis reveals a rich speciation and demographic history of orang-utans (Pongo pygmaeus and Pongo abelii).

Author information

1
Department of Statistics, Stanford University, Stanford, California, United States of America.

Abstract

To gain insights into evolutionary forces that have shaped the history of Bornean and Sumatran populations of orang-utans, we compare patterns of variation across more than 11 million single nucleotide polymorphisms found by previous mitochondrial and autosomal genome sequencing of 10 wild-caught orang-utans. Our analysis of the mitochondrial data yields a far more ancient split time between the two populations (~3.4 million years ago) than estimates based on autosomal data (0.4 million years ago), suggesting a complex speciation process with moderate levels of primarily male migration. We find that the distribution of selection coefficients consistent with the observed frequency spectrum of autosomal non-synonymous polymorphisms in orang-utans is similar to the distribution in humans. Our analysis indicates that 35% of genes have evolved under detectable negative selection. Overall, our findings suggest that purifying natural selection, genetic drift, and a complex demographic history are the dominant drivers of genome evolution for the two orang-utan populations.

PMID:
24194868
PMCID:
PMC3806739
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0077175
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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