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J Biomed Opt. 2013 Nov;18(11):115001. doi: 10.1117/1.JBO.18.11.115001.

Luminescence investigation of photosensitizer distribution in skin: correlation of singlet oxygen kinetics with the microarchitecture of the epidermis.


This is the first study showing that singlet oxygen kinetics of topically applied photosensitizers coincides with the microarchitecture of skin, e.g., fissures and hair follicles. The kinetics indicate a chemical interaction of singlet oxygen with the skin, which allows differentiating between residual crème, e.g., in the follicular orifice, and photosensitizer penetrated into the skin. We show the feasibility of an easy-to-use fiber optic application providing the opportunity for in situ investigation, as well as a setup with focused optics for high-resolution two-dimensional scanning of singlet oxygen luminescence kinetics in skin samples. The results show that time-resolved singlet oxygen luminescence detection in tissue is a desirable tool for medical therapy, diagnostics, and evaluation of singlet oxygen interaction with biological environments.

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