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Ginekol Pol. 2013 Sep;84(9):776-80.

[Effects of the cigarette smoking on the newborn clinical parametrs and the accumulation of cadmium and lead in the placenta of women from Upper Silesia].

[Article in Polish]

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Zakład Zoologii Kregowców i Biologii Człowieka, Uniwersytet Pedagogiczny im. KEN w Krakowie, Kraków, Polska.



The aim of the study was to determine the content of cadmium and lead in different parts of the placenta and fetal membranes of women who were exposed to cigarette smoke. The correlation between the two chemical elements and the impact of the Cd and Pb accumulation on newborn parameters were established.


The study material was collected immediately after delivery from 40 patients of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology Katowice. The marginal and central parts of the placenta and fetal membranes (amnion) were taken. The women were divided into two groups: smokers and non-smokers. Metal concentration in placenta was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). Bioethical Commission approved of the study


In both studied groups, smokers and non-smokers, the presence of cadmium and lead was detected. Smokers turned out to have accumulated more of the investigated heavy metals in the placenta and fetal membranes. In the analyzed groups of women of smokers and non-smokers, differences in the content of the studied metals were found, but they were not statistically significant. Differences in newborn parameters in the two groups of women occurred, but again they lacked statistical significance. The level of lead increases along with the increase in the amount of cadmium, which proves the existence of a statistically significant correlation between them (p = 0.000).


The number of smoked cigarettes increases cadmium content in maternal placenta and fetal membranes. No significant differences in newborn parameters of either smoker or non-smokers were observed, which may indicate women's adaptation to the environment containing cigarette smoke. The placenta and fetal membranes are biomarkers of the level of toxic exposure for the developing baby.

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