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JIMD Rep. 2014;13:91-9. doi: 10.1007/8904_2013_261. Epub 2013 Nov 5.

A Novel SLC6A8 Mutation in a Large Family with X-Linked Intellectual Disability: Clinical and Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Data of Both Hemizygous Males and Heterozygous Females.

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Department of Pediatrics and Pediatric Neurology, University Medicine Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany,


X-linked creatine transport (CRTR) deficiency, caused by mutations in the SLC6A8 gene, leads to intellectual disability, speech delay, epilepsy, and autistic behavior in hemizygous males. Additional diagnostic features are depleted brain creatine levels and increased creatine/creatinine ratio (cr/crn) in urine. In heterozygous females the phenotype is highly variable and diagnostic hallmarks might be inconclusive. This survey aims to explore the intrafamilial variability of clinical and brain proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) findings in males and females with CRTR deficiency. X-chromosome exome sequencing identified a novel missense mutation in the SLC6A8 gene (p.G351R) in a large family with X-linked intellectual disability. Detailed clinical investigations including neuropsychological assessment, measurement of in vivo brain creatine concentrations using quantitative MRS, and analyses of creatine metabolites in urine were performed in five clinically affected family members including three heterozygous females and one hemizygous male confirming the diagnosis of CRTR deficiency. The severe phenotype of the hemizygous male was accompanied by most distinct aberrations of brain creatine concentrations (-83% in gray and -79% in white matter of age-matched normal controls) and urinary creatine/creatinine ratio. In contrast, the heterozygous females showed varying albeit generally milder phenotypes with less severe brain creatine (-50% to -33% in gray and -45% to none in white matter) and biochemical urine abnormalities. An intrafamilial correlation between female phenotype, brain creatine depletion, and urinary creatine abnormalities was observed. The combination of powerful new technologies like exome-next-generation sequencing with thorough systematic evaluation of patients will further expand the clinical spectrum of neurometabolic diseases.

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