Send to

Choose Destination
Food Chem Toxicol. 2014 Jan;63:136-42. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2013.10.042. Epub 2013 Nov 1.

Beverage caffeine intakes in the U.S.

Author information

Department of Nutritional Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, 110 Chandlee University Park, PA 16802, United States. Electronic address:
Knight International, 715 Ketch Drive, Naples, FL 34103, United States. Electronic address:
Kantar Worldpanel, 11 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10010, United States. Electronic address:
Kantar Worldpanel, 11 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10010, United States. Electronic address:
Department of Epidemiology, Emory University, 1518 Clifton Road NE, CNR #3035, Atlanta, GA 30322, United States. Electronic address:


Caffeine is one of the most researched food components, with the vast majority of dietary contributions coming from beverage consumption; however, there is little population-level data on caffeine intakes in the U.S. This study estimated the caffeine intakes of the U.S. population using a comprehensive beverage survey, the Kantar Worldpanel Beverage Consumption Panel. A nationally representative sample of 37,602 consumers (aged ≥ 2 years) of caffeinated beverages completed 7-day diaries which facilitated the development of a detailed database of caffeine values to assess intakes. Results showed that 85% of the U.S. population consumes at least one caffeinated beverage per day. The mean (±SE) daily caffeine intake from all beverages was 165±1 mg for all ages combined. Caffeine intake was highest in consumers aged 50-64 years (226±2 mg/day). The 90th percentile intake was 380 mg/day for all ages combined. Coffee was the primary contributor to caffeine intakes in all age groups. Carbonated soft drinks and tea provided a greater percentage of caffeine in the younger (<18 years) age groups. The percentage of energy drink consumers across all age groups was low (≤10%). These data provide a current perspective on caffeinated beverage consumption patterns and caffeine intakes in the U.S. population.


Beverages; CSD; CSFII; Caffeine; Consumption; Continuing Survey of Food Intakes in Individuals; FDA; Food and Drug Administration; Intake; KWP; Kantar Worldpanel; NDSR; NHANES; National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey; Nutrition Data System for Research; SIP; Share of Intake Panel; Survey; U.S. population; US Department of Agriculture; USDA; carbonated soft drink

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center