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Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2014 Jun;73:102-26. doi: 10.1016/j.addr.2013.10.006. Epub 2013 Nov 1.

Paediatric oral biopharmaceutics: key considerations and current challenges.

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Pharmacy, Pharmacology and Therapeutics Section, School of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, Medical School Building, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston B15 2TT, United Kingdom. Electronic address:
Department of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath BA2 7AY, United Kingdom. Electronic address:
Ernst Moritz Arndt University Greifswald, Department of Pharmacy, Institute of Biopharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, Center of Drug Absorption and Transport, Felix-Hausdorff-Strasse 3, 17489 Greifswald, Germany. Electronic address:


The complex process of oral drug absorption is influenced by a host of drug and formulation properties as well as their interaction with the gastrointestinal environment in terms of drug solubility, dissolution, permeability and pre-systemic metabolism. For adult dosage forms the use of biopharmaceutical tools to aid in the design and development of medicinal products is well documented. This review considers current literature evidence to guide development of bespoke paediatric biopharmaceutics tools and reviews current understanding surrounding extrapolation of adult methodology into a paediatric population. Clinical testing and the use of in silico models were also reviewed. The results demonstrate that further work is required to adequately characterise the paediatric gastrointestinal tract to ensure that biopharmaceutics tools are appropriate to predict performance within this population. The most vulnerable group was found to be neonates and infants up to 6 months where differences from adults were greatest.


Dissolution; Metabolism; Permeability; Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modelling; Solubility

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