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Clin Perinatol. 2013 Dec;40(4):689-705. doi: 10.1016/j.clp.2013.07.014. Epub 2013 Sep 21.

Management of breastfeeding during and after the maternity hospitalization for late preterm infants.

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Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Rush University Medical Center, 1653 West Congress Parkway, Chicago, IL 60612, USA; Department of Women, Children and Family Nursing, Rush University Medical Center, 600 South Paulina, Chicago, IL 60612, USA. Electronic address:


Among infants born moderately and late preterm or early term, the greatest challenge for breastfeeding management is the late preterm infant (LPI) who is cared for with the mother in the maternity setting. Breastfeeding failure among LPIs and their mothers is high. Evidence-based strategies are needed to protect infant hydration and growth, and the maternal milk supply, until complete feeding at breast can be established. This article reviews the evidence for lactation and breastfeeding risks in LPIs and their mothers, and describes strategies for managing these immaturity-related feeding problems. Application to moderately and early preterm infants is made throughout.


Breastfeeding; Early term infant; Lactation; Lactation technologies; Late preterm infant; Moderately preterm infant

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