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Middle East J Anaesthesiol. 2013 Jun;22(2):173-8.

Effect of preoperative licorice lozenges on incidence of postextubation cough and sore throat in smokers undergoing general anesthesia and endotracheal intubation.

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Department of Anesthesia, Himalayan Institute of Medical Sciences, Swami Ram Nagar, Dehradun, India.



Post-Operative Sore Throat (POST) is an undesirable side effect ofendotracheal intubation. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological measures have been utilized for minimizing the morbidity caused by POST. We have tested whether medicated lozenges of Licorice provides efficacy in decreasing POST in smokers presenting for surgery under general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation.


100 patients, 20 - 65 years, American Society ofAnaesthesiologists (ASA) physical status Grade I & II, of either sex, with history of smoking, and posted for elective surgical procedure lasting more than one hour and requiring general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation were included and randomly divided into two groups (n = 50) to receive Licorice lozenges (Group A) and Sugar Candy (Group B). The patients were assessed for cough, sore throat and hoarseness of voice immediately after extubation and then at 30 min, 12 hrs and 24 hrs after extubation utilizing scoring system of Harding and McVey.


Overall incidence of postextubation cough was less in Group A (12 patients, 24%) compared to Group B (26 patients, 52%) (p = 0.002). Magnitude of sore throat (Grades 0/1/2/3) was seen in 48/2/0/0 patients (Group A) and 46/4/0/0 (Group B) at extubation (p = 0.40) and 34/16/0/0 (Group A) and 28/20/2/0 (Group B) at 30 min (p = 0.17). At 12 and 24 hours, the magnitudes of sore throats were 24/25/1/0 (Group A) & 12/38/0/0 (Group B) (p = 0.02) and 26/23/1/0 (Group A) & 15/35/0/0 (Group B) (p = 0.03) respectively.


Use of licorice lozenges is efficacious for reducing the distressing complaint of POST in postoperative period among smokers.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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