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Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2014 Feb;86(2):284-91. doi: 10.1016/j.ejpb.2013.10.007. Epub 2013 Oct 28.

Microneedle-assisted delivery of verapamil hydrochloride and amlodipine besylate.

Author information

1
College of Pharmacy, Touro University, Mare Island-Vallejo, CA, USA.
2
College of Pharmacy, Touro University, Mare Island-Vallejo, CA, USA. Electronic address: kevin.ita@tu.edu.
3
Department of Land, Air and Water Resources, University of California, Davis, CA, USA.

Abstract

The aim of this project was to study the effect of stainless steel solid microneedles and microneedle rollers on percutaneous penetration of verapamil hydrochloride and amlodipine besylate. Verapamil, 2-(3,4-dimethooxyphenyl)-5-[2-(3,4 dimethoxyphenyl)ethyl-methyl-amino]-2-propan-2-yl-pentanenitrile is a calcium channel blocker agent that regulates high blood pressure by decreasing myocardial contractilty, heart rate and impulse conduction. Amlodipine, (R, S)-2-[(2-aminoethoxy) methyl]-4-(2-chlorophenyl)-3-ethoxycarbonyl-5-methoxycarbonyl-6-methyl-1, 4-dihydropyridine, is a calcium channel blocker that is used for the management of hypertension and ischemic heart disease. Passive penetration of verapamil and amlodipine across the skin is low. In vitro studies were performed with microneedle-treated porcine ear skin using vertical static Franz diffusion cells (PermeGear, Hellertown, PA, USA). The receiver chamber contained 5ml of PBS (pH7.4) and was constantly maintained at 37°C temperature with a water circulation jacket. The diffusion area of the skin was 1.77cm(2). The donor compartment was loaded with 1ml of the solution containing 2.5mg/ml of amlodipine besylate. The donor chamber was covered with parafilm to avoid evaporation. Passive diffusion across untreated porcine skin served as control. Aliquots were taken every 2h for 12h and analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Transcutaneous flux of verapamil increased significantly from 8.75μg/cm(2)/h to 49.96μg/cm(2)/h across microneedle-roller treated porcine skin. Percutaneous flux of amlodipine besylate following the use of stainless steel microneedles was 22.39μg/cm(2)/h. Passive flux for the drug was 1.57μg/cm(2)/h. This enhancement of amlodipine flux was statistically significant. Transdermal flux of amlodipine with microneedle roller was 1.05μg/cm(2)/h in comparison with passive diffusion flux of 0.19μg/cm(2)/h. The difference in flux values was also statistically significant. Stainless steel solid microneedles and microneedle rollers increased percutaneous penetration of verapamil hydrochloride and amlodipine besylate. It may be feasible to develop transdermal microneedle patches for these drugs.

KEYWORDS:

Amlodipine; Hypertension; Microneedles; Transcutaneous flux; Transdermal drug delivery; Verapamil

PMID:
24176676
DOI:
10.1016/j.ejpb.2013.10.007
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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