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J Saudi Heart Assoc. 2012 Oct;24(4):225-31. doi: 10.1016/j.jsha.2012.08.002. Epub 2012 Aug 27.

Impact of diabetes on hospital adverse cardiovascular outcomes in acute coronary syndrome patients: Data from the Saudi project of acute coronary events.

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Cardiology Division, Security Forces Hospital, Riyadh.



Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major public health problem in Saudi Arabia. DM patients who present with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) have worse cardiovascular outcomes. We characterized clinical features and hospital outcomes of diabetic patients with ACS in Saudi Arabia.


ACS patients enrolled in the Saudi Project for Assessment of Acute Coronary Syndrome (SPACE) study from December 2005 to December 2007, either with DM or newly diagnosed during hospitalization were eligible. Baseline demographics, clinical presentation, therapies, and in-hospital outcomes were compared with non-diabetic patients.


Of the 5055 ACS patients enrolled in SPACE, 2929 (58.1%) had DM (mean age 60.2 ± 11.5, 71.6% male, and 87.6% Saudi nationals). Diabetic patients had higher risk-factor (e.g., hypertension, hyperlipidemia) prevalences and were more likely to present with non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (40.2% vs. 31.4%, p < 0.001), heart failure (25.4% vs. 13.9%, p < 0.001), significant left ventricular systolic dysfunction and multi-vessel disease. Diabetic patients had higher in-hospital heart failure, cardiogenic shock, and re-infarction rates. Adjusted odds ratio for in-hospital mortality in diabetic patients was 1.83 (95% CI, 1.02-3.30, p = 0.042).


A substantial proportion of Saudi patients presenting with ACS have DM and a significantly worse prognosis. These data highlight the importance of cardiovascular preventative interventions in the general population.


Acute coronary syndrome; Coronary artery disease; Diabetes; In-hospital mortality; Registry; Saudi Arabia

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