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Public Health Nutr. 2014 Nov;17(11):2570-6. doi: 10.1017/S1368980013002875. Epub 2013 Oct 29.

Association of total protein intake with bone mineral density and bone loss in men and women from the Framingham Offspring Study.

Author information

1
1Institute for Aging Research,Hebrew SeniorLife,1200 Centre Street,Boston,MA 02131,USA.
2
4Clinical Laboratory and Nutritional Sciences,University of Massachusetts,Lowell,MA,USA.
3
5Boston University School of Public Health and the Framingham Heart Study,Boston,MA,USA.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To examine (i) the association of percentage of total energy intake from protein (protein intake %) with bone mineral density (BMD, g/cm2) and bone loss at the femoral neck, trochanter and lumbar spine (L2-L4) and (ii) Ca as an effect modifier.

SETTING:

The Framingham Offspring Study.

SUBJECTS:

Men (n 1280) and women (n 1639) completed an FFQ in 1992-1995 or 1995-1998 and underwent baseline BMD measurement by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in 1996-2000. Men (n 495) and women (n 680) had follow-up BMD measured in 2002-2005.

DESIGN:

Cohort study using multivariable regression to examine the association of protein intake % with each BMD, adjusting for covariates. Statistical interaction between protein intake % and Ca (total, dietary, supplemental) intake was examined.

RESULTS:

The mean age at baseline was 61 (sd 9) years. In the cross-sectional analyses, protein intake % was positively associated with all BMD sites (P range: 0·02-0·04) in women but not in men. Significant interactions were observed with total Ca intake (<800 mg/d v. ≥800 mg/d) in women at all bone sites (P range: 0·002-0·02). Upon stratification, protein intake % was positively associated with all BMD sites (P range: 0·04-0·10) in women with low Ca intakes but not in those with high Ca intakes. In the longitudinal analyses, in men, higher protein intake % was associated with more bone loss at the trochanter (P = 0·01) while no associations were seen in women, regardless of Ca intake.

CONCLUSIONS:

This suggests that greater protein intake benefits women especially those with lower Ca intakes. However, protein effects are not significant for short-term changes in bone density. Contrastingly, in men, higher protein intakes lead to greater bone loss at the trochanter. Longer follow-up is required to examine the impact of protein on bone loss.

PMID:
24168918
PMCID:
PMC4103961
DOI:
10.1017/S1368980013002875
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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