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Am J Vet Res. 2013 Nov;74(11):1385-91. doi: 10.2460/ajvr.74.11.1385.

Computed tomographic evaluation to determine efficacy of euthanasia of yearling feedlot cattle by use of various firearm-ammunition combinations.

Author information

1
Department of Clinical Science, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66502.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To evaluate with CT the efficacy of various combinations of firearms and ammunitions to penetrate and disrupt the brain tissue of cadaveric heads of feedlot steers.

SAMPLE:

42 fresh cadaveric heads of 12- to 18-month-old Bos taurus steers.

PROCEDURES:

For each of 7 combinations of firearms and ammunitions (.22-caliber rifle firing a long rifle 30-grain plated lead solid- or hollow-point round, .223-caliber carbine firing a 50-grain ballistic-tip round, 9-mm pistol firing a 124-grain total metal jacket round, .45-caliber automatic Colt pistol [ACP] firing a 230-grain full metal jacket round, and 12-gauge shotgun firing a 2.75-inch 1.25-ounce No. 4 birdshot shell or a 1-ounce rifled slug), 6 cadaveric heads were shot at an identical distance (3 m), angle, and anatomic location. Heads were scanned with third-generation CT, and images were evaluated to determine extent of penetration, projectile fragmentation, cranial fracture, and likelihood of instantaneous death (≥ 30% destruction of brain tissue or a brainstem lesion). RESULTS-41 of 42 skulls were penetrated by the projectile. Instantaneous death was considered a likely consequence for 83% (25/30) of heads shot with a rifle-fired .22-caliber solid-point round, pistol-fired .45-caliber ACP round, carbine-fired .223-caliber round, and shotgun-fired birdshot and slug. Of the 18 heads shot with pistol-fired 9-mm and .45-caliber ACP rounds and rifle-fired .22-caliber hollow-point rounds, only 6 had brainstem lesions. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE-Results suggested that gunshots delivered by all firearm-ammunition combinations except rifle-fired .22-caliber hollow-point rounds and pistol-fired 9-mm rounds were viable options for euthanasia of feedlot cattle.

PMID:
24168302
DOI:
10.2460/ajvr.74.11.1385
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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