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Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2014 Mar;37(3):312-20. doi: 10.1111/pace.12281. Epub 2013 Oct 25.

Three-dimensional echocardiographic optimization improves outcome in cardiac resynchronization therapy compared to ECG optimization: a randomized comparison.

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Klinik für Herz- und Kreislauferkrankungen, Deutsches Herzzentrum München, Technische Universität München, Munich, Germany.



There is little consensus on optimal atrioventricular (AV) and ventricular-to-ventricular (VV) intervals in cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). The aim of this study was to examine a novel combination of Doppler echocardiography (DE) and three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) for individualized AV- and VV-interval optimization compared to conventional electrocardiogram (ECG) optimization.


In this double-blind, randomized controlled trial, 77 patients (male: 57, age: 68 ± 10 years) with severely reduced ejection fraction (EF), New York Heart Association (NYHA) class III or IV, and wide QRS complex (>120 ms) have been included. Patients were randomized to either AV- and VV-interval optimization using DE and 3DE (group 1, n = 39) or ECG (group 2, n = 38). 3DE was performed in all patients for the evaluation of left ventricular (LV) dimensions, EF and systolic dyssynchrony index (SDI), and NYHA class obtained before CRT and after 3 months. Primary endpoint of the study was clinical response to CRT, defined as a reduction of NYHA class by ≥1 score. Secondary endpoints were change of EF, LV volumes, and SDI.


There were significantly more responders in group 1 (82%) than in group 2 (58%, P = 0.021). Similarly, group 1 showed a larger increase in EF (7.0 ± 6.0% vs 3.4 ± 5.6%, P = 0.015) and a more pronounced reduction of SDI (-4.5 ± 5.9% vs -1.5 ± 5.6%, P = 0.039) than group 2.


Compared with conventional ECG optimization, this novel echocardiographic optimization protocol resulted in a significantly higher response rate, improved LV systolic function, and may be used to select the optimal AV and VV intervals in CRT.


3D echocardiography; cardiac resynchronization therapy; dyssynchrony; optimization

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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