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Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2013 Nov;36(3):1120-6. doi: 10.1016/j.etap.2013.09.013. Epub 2013 Oct 5.

Tissue-specific bioconcentration of the synthetic steroid hormone medroxyprogesterone acetate in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

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Institute of Applied Science, Department of Biology, University of North Texas, Denton, TX, USA. Electronic address:


The steroid hormone medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), commonly used in oral and injectable contraceptives, has been detected in surface and wastewaters near urban and agricultural areas in several rivers of the world. The objectives of this study were to examine the accumulative potential and tissue distribution of MPA in fish. A freshwater species, the common carp (Cyprinus carpio), was exposed to 100 μg/L of MPA for a 7-day period followed by a depuration phase in which fish were maintained in dechlorinated tap water for an additional 7 days. Tissues (muscle, brain, plasma, and liver) were sampled during the uptake (days 1, 3, and 7) and depuration (day 14) phases of the experiment. Tissue-specific bioconcentration factors (BCF) ranged from 4.3 to 37.8 and uptake was greatest in the liver>brain>plasma and lowest in the muscle. From a regulatory standpoint, MPA shows little tendency to bioaccumulate in fish.


Bioconcentration; Common carp; Pharmaceuticals; Progestins

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