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Food Chem Toxicol. 2013 Dec;62:908-18. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2013.10.021. Epub 2013 Oct 24.

Rubus idaeus L. reverses epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and suppresses cell invasion and protease activities by targeting ERK1/2 and FAK pathways in human lung cancer cells.

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Clinical Laboratory, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, No. 110, Section 1, Jianguo N. Road, Taichung, Taiwan; Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Chung Shan Medical University, No. 110, Section 1, Jianguo N. Road, Taichung, Taiwan.


Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been considered essential for cancer metastasis, a multistep complicated process including local invasion, intravasation, extravasation, and proliferation at distant sites. Herein we provided molecular evidence associated with the antimetastatic effect of Rubus idaeus L. extracts (RIE) by showing a nearly complete inhibition on the invasion (p<0.001) of highly metastatic A549 cells via reduced activities of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and urokinasetype plasminogen activator (u-PA). We performed Western blot to find that RIE could induce up-regulation of epithelial marker such as E-cadherin and α-catenin and inhibit the mesenchymal markers such as N-cadherin, fibronectin, snail-1, and vimentin. Selective snail-1 inhibition by snail-1-specific-siRNA also showed increased E-cadherin expression in A549 cells suggesting a possible involvement of snail-1 inhibition in RIE-caused increase in E-cadherin level. RIE also inhibited p-FAK, p-paxillin and AP-1 by Western blot analysis, indicating the anti-EMT effect of RIE in human lung carcinoma. Importantly, an in vivo BALB/c nude mice xenograft model showed that RIE treatment reduced tumor growth by oral gavage, and RIE represent promising candidates for future phytochemical-based mechanistic pathway-targeted cancer prevention strategies.


EMT; FAK; Invasion; MMP; MMP-2; RIE; Rubus idaeus; Rubus idaeus L. extracts; epithelial–mesenchymal transition; focal adhesion kinase; matrix metalloproteinase; u-PA; urokinasetype plasminogen activator

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