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Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2014 Jul;12(7):1108-1116.e6. doi: 10.1016/j.cgh.2013.10.012. Epub 2013 Oct 23.

Risk of congenital malformations among offspring of mothers and fathers with celiac disease: a nationwide cohort study.

Author information

1
Cancer Epidemiology Unit, CPO-Piemonte and University of Turin, Turin, Italy; Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
2
Cancer Epidemiology Unit, CPO-Piemonte and University of Turin, Turin, Italy.
3
Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Women's and Children's Health, Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
4
Department of Epidemiology Research, Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark.
5
Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
6
Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Pediatrics, Örebro University Hospital, Sweden. Electronic address: jonasludvigsson@yahoo.com.

Abstract

BACKGROUND & AIMS:

Many patients with celiac disease experience malabsorption, weight loss, and anemia; undiagnosed celiac disease during pregnancy has been linked with adverse outcomes. Studies of celiac disease and congenital malformations in offspring have been underpowered. We investigated the risk of congenital malformations among the offspring of parents with celiac disease.

METHODS:

We performed a nationwide cohort study of data from linked health care registers in Sweden from 1973 through 2009. We collected histopathology data from 28 pathology departments in Sweden to identify individuals with celiac disease (based on the presence of villous atrophy). We estimated the risks of malformations in the offspring of mothers and fathers with and without celiac disease. Logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted prevalence odds ratios (aPORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs).

RESULTS:

Among 11,382 offspring of mothers with celiac disease, there were 672 cases (5.9%) of malformation compared with 2098 cases (5.1%) among 40,922 offspring of mothers without celiac disease. Similarly, 352 (5.9%) of 6002 offspring of fathers with celiac disease and 1009 (5.1%) of 19,600 offspring of fathers without celiac disease had a malformation. In adjusted analyses, the offspring of mothers or fathers with celiac disease had a slightly increased risk of having children with malformations (for those with mothers with celiac disease: aPOR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.05-1.26; for those with fathers with celiac disease: aPOR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.00-1.29). However, these excess risks decreased or vanished entirely when we restricted our data to births since 2000 (for those with mothers with celiac disease: aPOR, 1.11; and 95% CI, 0.79-1.56; for those with fathers with celiac disease: aPOR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.81-1.26).

CONCLUSIONS:

In a nationwide study, we found an increased risk for malformation among the offspring of mothers or fathers with celiac disease. However, the excess risk is small; the upper limits of the CIs for malformation indicate a 29% maximum relative increase.

KEYWORDS:

Autoimmunity; Celiac; Child; Congenital Malformation; Gluten Intolerance

PMID:
24161347
DOI:
10.1016/j.cgh.2013.10.012
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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