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Public Health Nutr. 2014 Nov;17(11):2577-86. doi: 10.1017/S1368980013002814. Epub 2013 Oct 28.

Development of a nutritionally balanced pizza as a functional meal designed to meet published dietary guidelines.

Author information

1
1Human Nutrition,School of Medicine,College of Medical,Veterinary and Life Sciences,University of Glasgow,Walton Building,Glasgow Royal Infirmary,Castle Street,Glasgow G4 0SF,UK.
2
2Food Research Laboratory,Department of Life Sciences,Glasgow Caledonian University,Glasgow,UK.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To develop a worked example of product reformulation of a very popular 'junk food' to meet nutritional guidelines for public health in a ready meal.

DESIGN:

Indicative survey of popular Margherita pizzas, followed by product reformulation, applying dietary guidelines to generate a single-item pizza meal containing 30 % daily amounts of energy and all nutrients. An iterative process was used; first to optimize nutrient balance by adjusting the proportions of bread base, tomato-based sauce and mozzarella topping, then adding ingredients to provide specific nutrients and consumer tasting.

SETTING:

Urban areas of contrasting socio-economic status.

SUBJECTS:

Untrained unselected adults (n 49) and children (n 63), assessing pizza at tasting stations.

RESULTS:

Most commercial pizzas provide insufficient information to assess all nutrients and traditional Margherita pizza ingredients provide insufficient Fe, Zn, iodine, and vitamins C and B12. Energy content of the portions currently sold as standard range from 837 to 2351 kJ (200 to 562 kcal), and most exceed 30 % Guideline Daily Amounts for saturated fat and Na when a 2510 kJ (600 kcal) notional meal is considered. The 'nutritionally balanced pizza' provides the required energy for a single-item meal (2510 kJ/600 kcal), with all nutrients within recommended ranges: Na (473 mg, ∼45 % below recommended level), saturated fat (<11 % energy) and dietary fibre (13·7 g). Most adults (77 %) and children (81 %) rated it 'as good as' or 'better than' their usual choice.

CONCLUSIONS:

Nutritional guidelines to reduce chronic diseases can be applied to reformulate 'junk food' ready meals, to improve public health through a health-by-stealth approach without requiring change in eating habits.

PMID:
24160252
DOI:
10.1017/S1368980013002814
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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