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J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2014 Jul;69(7):833-42. doi: 10.1093/gerona/glt168. Epub 2013 Oct 24.

Is HIV a model of accelerated or accentuated aging?

Author information

1
Faculty of Science, School of Optometry and Vision Science, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.
2
Department of Medicine/Infectious Diseases, W.G. (Bill) Hefner VAMC, Salisbury, North Carolina.
3
Department of Immunology/Microbiology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois. FC Donders Chair, Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Utrecht University, The Netherlands.
4
Section on Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Antiretroviral therapy has reduced the incidence of adverse events and early mortality in HIV-infected persons. Despite these benefits, important comorbidities that increase with age (eg, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer, liver disease, and neurocognitive impairment) are more prevalent in HIV-infected persons than in HIV-uninfected persons at every age, and geriatric syndromes such as falls and frailty occur earlier in HIV-infected persons. This raises a critical research question: Does HIV accelerate aging through pathways and mechanisms common to the aging process or is HIV simply an additional risk factor for a wide number of chronic conditions, thus accentuating aging?

METHODS:

Extensive literature review.

RESULTS:

The purpose of this review is to briefly outline the evidence that age-related clinical syndromes are exacerbated by HIV, examine the ways in which HIV is similar, and dissimilar from natural aging, and assess the validity of HIV as a model of premature aging. Specific biomarkers of aging are limited in HIV-infected hosts and impacted by antiretroviral therapy, and a high rate of modifiable life style confounders (eg, smoking, substance abuse, alcohol) and coinfections (eg, hepatitis) in HIV-infected participants.

CONCLUSIONS:

There is a need for validated biomarkers of aging in the context of HIV. Despite these differences, welldesigned studies of HIV-infected participants are likely to provide new opportunities to better understand the mechanisms that lead to aging and age-related diseases.

KEYWORDS:

AIDS; Biomarkers of aging; HIV; Immunosenescence; Multimorbidity

PMID:
24158766
PMCID:
PMC4067117
DOI:
10.1093/gerona/glt168
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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