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AIDS. 2013 Sep 10;27(14):2255-60. doi: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e328362692f.

Comparison of HIV DNA and RNA in gut-associated lymphoid tissue of HIV-infected controllers and noncontrollers.

Author information

1
aDepartment of Medicine bDepartment of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California cSan Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, California, USA.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

HIV-infected controllers have provided novel insights into mechanisms of viral control. We investigated the degree to which HIV DNA and RNA are present in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) of controllers.

DESIGN:

Cross-sectional cohort study.

METHODS:

Colorectal biopsy pieces were obtained from five untreated noncontrollers, five ART-suppressed patients, and nine untreated controllers.

RESULTS:

Rectal HIV DNA was lower in controllers (median 496 copies/10(6) CD4 T cells) than in untreated noncontrollers (117483 copies/10(6) CD4+ T cells, P = 0.001) and ART-suppressed patients (6116 copies/10(6) CD4 T cells, P = 0.004). Similarly, rectal HIV RNA was lower in controllers (19 copies/10(6) CD4 T cells) than in noncontrollers (15210 copies/10(6) CD4+ T cells, P = 0.001) and ART-suppressed patients (1625 copies/10(6) CD4+ T cells, P = 0.0599). Rectal HIV RNA/DNA ratios were not statistically different between the three groups.

CONCLUSION:

Despite being able to maintain very low plasma HIV RNA levels in the absence of antiretroviral therapy (ART), HIV-infected controllers have readily measurable levels of HIV DNA and RNA in GALT. As expected, controllers had lower rectal HIV DNA and RNA compared with untreated noncontrollers and ART-suppressed individuals. Compared with the mechanisms of 'natural' viral control of controllers, long-term ART does not reduce the total HIV reservoir to the level of controllers.

PMID:
24157906
PMCID:
PMC4143147
DOI:
10.1097/QAD.0b013e328362692f
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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