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Parasitol Int. 2014 Feb;63(1):132-7. doi: 10.1016/j.parint.2013.10.007. Epub 2013 Oct 22.

Occurrence of human-pathogenic Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium genotypes in laboratory macaques in Guangxi, China.

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State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237, China; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA.


Captive nonhuman primates have been identified as common hosts of Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium hominis, and Cyclospora spp., thus are potential reservoirs of some enteric parasites in humans. However, few studies have examined the source and human-infective potential of enteric parasites in laboratory nonhuman primates. In the present work, 205 fecal specimens were collected from three groups of captive Macaca fascicularis kept in different densities in a laboratory animal facility in Guangxi, China, and examined by PCR for E. bieneusi, G. duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp., and Cyclospora spp. The infection rates of E. bieneusi and G. duodenalis were 11.3% and 1.2% in Group 1 (young animals kept individually; n=168), 72.2% and 11.1% in Group 2 (young animals kept in groups; n=18), and 31.6% and 5.3% in Group 3 (adults kept in groups; n=19), respectively. Sequence analysis of PCR products showed the presence of five E. bieneusi genotypes, with genotype D (in 16/36 genotyped specimens) and a new genotype (in 15/36 genotyped specimens) as the dominant genotypes. All five E. bieneusi genotypes belonged to the zoonotic group (Group 1). The G. duodenalis genotypes (assemblages AII and B) in five specimens and C. hominis subtype (IdA14) in one specimen were also known human-pathogens, although the Cyclospora seen in one animal appeared to be unique to macaque monkeys. The higher infection rate in younger animals reared in groups and common occurrence of zoonotic genotypes indicated that human-pathogenic E. bieneusi could be transmitted efficiently in captive nonhuman primates, and group-housing was a risk factor for transmission of zoonotic pathogens in young nonhuman primates in research facilities.


Cryptosporidium; Cyclospora; Enterocytozoon bieneusi; Giardia; Macaca fascicularis

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