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J Psychiatr Res. 2014 Jan;48(1):79-85. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2013.10.004. Epub 2013 Oct 12.

Obstetrical complications and Apgar score in subjects at risk of psychosis.

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Medical University of Lodz, Chair of Psychiatry, Department of Affective and Psychotic Disorders, ul. Czechosłowacka 8/10, 92-216 Lodz, Poland. Electronic address:


The objective of the study was to identify associations between a history of obstetrical complications (OCs) and the future development of symptoms indicating risk of psychosis (At Risk Mental State - ARMS). The frequency of OCs was assessed in 66 ARMS subjects, 50 subjects with the first episode of schizophrenia (FES) and 50 healthy controls. Obstetrical data was obtained from medical documentation and evaluated with the Lewis and Murray Scale. Definite OCs, according to the Lewis and Murray Scale, occurred significantly more frequently in the ARMS group compared to the controls (χ(2) = 7.79, p = 0.005; OR = 4.20, 95% CI = 1.46-12.11), as well as in the FES subjects compared to the controls (χ(2) = 8.39, p = 0.004; OR = 4.64, 95% CI = 1.56-13.20). Apgar scores in the first (Apgar 1) and the fifth minute after birth (Apgar 5) were significantly lower in the FES subjects compared to the controls (for Apgar 1 score Z = 4.439, p < 0.0001; for Apgar 5 score Z = 5.250, p < 0.0001). The ARMS subjects demonstrated significantly lower Apgar 5 scores compared to the healthy controls (Z = 3.458, p = 0.0016). The results indicate that OCs and low Apgar 5 score should be considered important factors in identifying subjects at risk of developing psychosis.


Apgar score; At risk mental state; First episode schizophrenia; Obstetrical complications

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