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Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2013 Nov;67(7):532-9. doi: 10.1111/pcn.12104. Epub 2013 Oct 24.

Association of metabolic syndrome with atypical features of depression in Japanese people.

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Department of Hygiene and Public Health, Teikyo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; Division of Psychosomatic Medicine, Teikyo University Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.



It has been controversial whether metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with depression. We aimed to clarify the correlation between MetS and depression, considering atypical features of depression.


Participants were 1011 Japanese men aged 20-59 years. MetS was diagnosed according to criteria set by the International Diabetes Federation. Clinical interviews for major depressive disorder (MDD) employed the DSM-IV; MDD was classified into atypical and non-atypical types. The prevalence of MetS was compared between the groups with no MDD, atypical depression, and non-atypical depression via trend analyses. Multiple logistic regression analyses examined the association of MetS with atypical depression and the features thereof.


In total, 141 (14.0%) participants were diagnosed with MetS and 57 (5.6%) were diagnosed with MDD (14 had atypical and 43 had non-atypicalMDD). The prevalence of MetS was the highest in the group with atypical depression, followed by the non-atypical depression and no MDD groups, respectively, with a marginally significant trend (P = 0.07). The adjusted odds ratios of MetS associated with depression were 3.8 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-13.2) for atypical depression and 1.6 (95% CI 0.7-3.6) for non-atypical depression. Among the five features of atypical depression, only hyperphagia was significantly related to MetS (odds ratio 2.7, 95% CI 1.8-4.1).


There was a positive association between MetS and atypical depression, but not between MetS and non-atypical depression. Specifically, hyperphagia seems to be an important factor affecting the correlation between MetS and atypical depression.


Japan; atypical depression; hyperphagia; major depression; metabolic syndrome

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