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J Sports Sci Med. 2008 Jun 1;7(2):269-78. eCollection 2008.

Pre-activity modulation of lower extremity muscles within different types and heights of deep jump.

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Department of Biomechanics and Motor Control, Faculty of Sport and Physical Education, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia.


The purpose of this study was to determine modulation of pre- activity related to different types and heights of deep jump. Sixteen male soccer players without experience in deep jumps training (the national competition; 15.0 ± 0.5yrs; weight 61.9 ± 6.1kg; height 1.77 ± 0.07m), who participated in the study, performed three types of deep jump (bounce landing, counter landing, and bounce drop jump) from three different heights (40cm, 60cm, and 80cm). Surface EMG device (1000Hz) was used to estimate muscle activity (maximal amplitude of EMG - AmaxEMG; integral EMG signal - iEMG) of five muscles (mm.gastrocnemii, m.soleus, m.tibialis anterior, m.vastus lateralis) within 150ms before touchdown. All the muscles, except m. gastrocnemius medialis, showed systematic increase in pre-activity when platform height was raised. For most of the lower extremity muscles, the most significant differences were between values of pre-activity obtained for 40 cm and 80 cm platforms. While the amount of muscle pre-activity in deep jumps from the heights above and beneath the optimal one did not differ significantly from that generated in deep jumps from the optimal drop height of 60 cm, the patterns of muscle pre-activity obtained for the heights above the optimal one did differ from those obtained for the optimal drop height. That suggests that deep jumps from the heights above the optimal one do not seem to be an adequate exercise for adjusting muscle activity for the impact. Muscle pre-activity in bounce drop jumps differed significantly from that in counter landing and bounce landing respectively, which should indicate that a higher amount of pre-activity generated during bounce drop jumps was used for performing take-offs. As this study included the subjects who were not familiar with deep jumps training, the prospective studies should reveal the results of athletes with previous experience. Key pointsHeight factor proved to be more relevant for the change in pre-activation level compared to the drop jump type factor.There is evident qualitative difference in pattern of pre-activation from lower and higher drop heights, compared to pattern of pre-activation obtained from optimal drop height.Drop jumps from the heights above the optimal one are not adequate for nicely preparing muscle activity for the impact.


Electromyography; drop jumps; landings; programmed muscle activity

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