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J Pain Palliat Care Pharmacother. 2013 Dec;27(4):322-39. doi: 10.3109/15360288.2013.847889. Epub 2013 Oct 22.

Demystifying analytical approaches for urine drug testing to evaluate medication adherence in chronic pain management.


This comprehensive review of analytical methods used for urine drug testing for the support of pain management describes the methods, their strengths and limitations, and types of analyses used in clinical laboratories today. Specific applications to analysis of opioid levels are addressed. Qualitative versus quantitative testing, immunoassays, chromatographic methods, and spectrometry are discussed. The importance of proper urine sample collection and processing is addressed. Analytical explanations for unexpected results are described. This article describes the scientific basis for urine drug testing providing information which will allow clinicians to differentiate between valid and questionable claims for urine drug testing to monitor medication adherence among chronic pain patients.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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