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PLoS One. 2013 Oct 11;8(10):e76480. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0076480. eCollection 2013.

Effects of high and low fat dairy food on cardio-metabolic risk factors: a meta-analysis of randomized studies.

Author information

1
Green Lane Cardiovascular Service, Auckland City Hospital, Auckland, New Zealand.

Abstract

IMPORTANCE:

Clear guidelines on the health effects of dairy food are important given the high prevalence of obesity, cardiovascular disease and diabetes, and increasing global consumption of dairy food.

OBJECTIVE:

To evaluate the effects of increased dairy food on cardio metabolic risk factors.

DATA SOURCES:

Searches were performed until April 2013 using MEDLINE, Science Direct, Google,Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, reference lists of articles, and proceedings of major meetings.

STUDY SELECTION:

Randomized controlled studies with healthy adults randomized to increased dairy food for more than one month without additional interventions.

DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS:

A standard list was used to extract descriptive, methodological and key variables from all eligible studies. If data was not included in the published report corresponding authors were contacted.

RESULTS:

20 studies with 1677 participants with a median duration of dietary change of 26 (IQR 10-39) weeks and mean increase in dairy food intake of 3.6 (SD 0.92) serves/day were included. There was an increase in weight with low (+0.82, 0.35 to 1.28 kg, p<0.001) and whole fat dairy food (+0.41, 0.04 to 0.79 kg, p=0.03), but no significant change in waist circumference (-0.07, -1.24 to 1.10 cm) ; HOMA -IR (-0.94, -1.93 to 0.04 units); fasting glucose (+1.32, 0.19 to 2.45 mg/dl) ; LDL-c (1.85,-2.89 to 6.60 mg/dl); HDL-c (-0.19, -2.10 to 1.71 mg/dl); systolic BP (-0.4, -1.6 to 0.8 mmHg); diastolic BP (-0.4, -1.7 to 0.8 mmHg) or CRP (-1.07, -2.54 to 0.39 mg/L). Changes in other cardio-metabolic risk factors were similar for low and whole fat dairy interventions.

LIMITATIONS:

Most clinical trials were small and of modest quality. .

CONCLUSION:

Increasing whole fat and low fat dairy food consumption increases weight but has minor effects on other cardio-metabolic risk factors.

TRIAL REGISTRATION ACTRN:

Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12613000401752, http://www.anzctr.org.au.

ETHICS APPROVAL NUMBER:

NTX/10/11/115.

PMID:
24146877
PMCID:
PMC3795726
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0076480
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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