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Subcell Biochem. 2014;75:135-56. doi: 10.1007/978-94-007-7359-2_8.

Carbonic anhydrase related proteins: molecular biology and evolution.

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Institute of Biomedical Technology and School of Medicine, University of Tampere and BioMediTech, Tampere, Finland,


The catalytically inactive isoforms of α-carbonic anhydrases are known as carbonic anhydrase related proteins (CARPs). The CARPs occur independently or as domains of other proteins in animals (both vertebrates and invertebrates) and viruses. The catalytic inactivity of CARPs is due to the lack of histidine residues required for the coordination of the zinc atom. The phylogenetic analysis shows that these proteins are highly conserved across the species. The three CARPs in vertebrates are known as CARP VIII, X and XI. CARPs orthologous to CARP VIII are found in deuterostome invertebrates, whereas protostomes only possess orthologs of CARP X. The CA-like domains of receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPR) are found only in PTPRG and PTPRZ. Most of these CARPs are predominantly expressed in central nervous system. Among the three vertebrate CA isoforms, CARP VIII is functionally associated with motor coordination in human, mouse and zebrafish and certain types of cancers in humans. Vertebrate expression studies show that CARP X is exclusively expressed in the brain. CARP XI is only found in tetrapods and is highly expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) of humans and mice and is also associated with several cancers. CARP VIII, PTPRZ and PTPRG have been shown to coordinate the function of other proteins by protein-protein interaction, and viral CARPs participate in attachment to host cells, but the precise biological function of CARPs X and XI is still unknown. The findings so far suggest many novel functions for the CARP subfamily, most likely related to binding to other proteins.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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