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Early Hum Dev. 2013 Dec;89(12):925-30. doi: 10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2013.09.019. Epub 2013 Oct 18.

Social-emotional delays at 2 years in extremely low gestational age survivors: correlates of impaired orientation/engagement and emotional regulation.

Author information

1
Department of Pediatrics, Loyola University Medical Center and Loyola University of Chicago Stritch School of Medicine, Maywood, IL, United States.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Premature infants are less socially and emotionally competent at school age than infants born at term.

AIMS:

To evaluate the correlates of social and emotional delays at 2 years of age among prematurely born children.

STUDY DESIGN:

This is a prospective cohort study.

SUBJECTS:

904 children born at <28 weeks gestation during 2002-2004 and enrolled in the ELGAN study who survived until age 2 years and returned for a developmental assessment.

OUTCOME MEASURES:

The Bayley Behavior Rating Scale (BRS), a neurological examination, and the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II (BSID-II).

RESULTS:

Fully 31% of children had a non-optimal (14%) or questionable (17%) (NO/Q) BRS score for Emotional Regulation (ER), and 27% had a non-optimal (13%) or questionable (14%) score for Orientation/Engagement (O/E). Children with NO/Q scores on ER and O/E were more likely than others to have MDI and PDI scores <70 and be unable to walk. Antecedents of NO/Q OE scores included multi-fetal pregnancy, while antecedents of NO/Q scores for both ER and O/E included indicators of socioeconomic disadvantage, and male sex.

CONCLUSIONS:

Over 25% of children born extremely premature exhibit socio-emotional delays during developmental assessment at age 2 years. Antecedents of these delays include sociodemographic characteristics, as well as those common antecedents of other impairments commonly observed among extremely preterm infants.

KEYWORDS:

BRS; BSID-II; Bayley Scales Infant Development-II; Behavior Rating Scale; Behavioral regulation; Brain injury; ELGAN; ER; Emotional Regulation; Extreme prematurity; Extremely Low Gestational Age Newborn; GMFCS; Gross Motor Function Classification System; IVH; MDI; Mental Development Index; NO/Q; Neurodevelopmental disability; O/E; Orientation Engagement; PDI; Psychomotor Development Index; intraventricular hemorrhage; non-optimal or questionable

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