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J Invest Surg. 2014 Apr;27(2):114-24. doi: 10.3109/08941939.2013.835454. Epub 2013 Oct 21.

Pentoxifylline in liver ischemia and reperfusion.

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Experimental Surgery, Universidad Católica de Valencia, Valencia, Spain.


Pentoxifylline is a methylxanthine compound which was first filed in 1973 and registered in 1974 in the United States by Sanofi-Aventis Deustchland Gmbh for the treatment of intermittent claudication for chronic occlusive arterial disease. This methylxanthine was later discovered to be a phosphodiesterase inhibitor. Furthermore, its hemorheological properties and its function as an inhibitor of inflammatory cytokines, like TNF-α, allowed researchers to study its effects in organ ischemia and reperfusion and transplantation. Although this drug has demonstrated beneficial effects, the mechanisms by which Pentoxifylline exerts a protective effect are not fully understood. This paper focuses on reviewing the literature to define the effect of Pentoxifylline when used in liver ischemia and reperfusion injury. Our research shows different animal models in which Pentoxifylline has been used as well as different doses and time of administration, as the ideal dose and timing have not yet been ascertained in liver ischemia and reperfusion. In conclusion, Pentoxifylline has shown positive effects in liver ischemia and reperfusion injury, and the main mechanism seems to be associated with the inhibition of TNF-α.

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